Letztes Update: 19. Oktober 2017
Architect Joshua Prince-Ramus takes the audience on dazzling, dizzying virtual tours of three recent projects: the Central Library in Seattle, the Museum Plaza in Louisville and the Charles Wyly Theater in Dallas.
Joshua Prince-Ramus (Architect) is best known as architect of the Seattle Central Library, already being hailed as a masterpiece of contemporary culture. Prince-Ramus was the founding partner of OMA New York—the American affiliate of the Office for Metropolitan Architecture (OMA) in the Netherlands—and served as its Principal until he renamed the firm REX in 2006.
A TED Talk – ted.com
I’m going to present three projects in rapid fire. I don’t have much time to do it. And I want to reinforce three ideas with that rapid-fire presentation.
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00:20The first is what I like to call a hyper-rational process. It’s a process that takes rationality almost to an absurd level, and it transcends all the baggage that normally comes with what people would call, sort of a rational conclusion to something. And it concludes in something that you see here, that you actually wouldn’t expect as being the result of rationality.
00:41The second — the second is that this process does not have a signature. There is no authorship.Architects are obsessed with authorship. This is something that has editing and it has teams, but in fact, we no longer see within this process, the traditional master architect creating a sketch that his minions carry out.
01:02And the third is that it challenges — and this is, in the length of this, very hard to support why, connect all these things — but it challenges the high modernist notion of flexibility. High modernists said we will create sort of singular spaces that are generic, almost anything can happen within them. I call it sort of „shotgun flexibility“ — turn your head this way; shoot; and you’re bound to kill something. So, this is the promise of high modernism: within a single space, actually, any kind of activity can happen. But as we’re seeing, operational costs are starting to dwarf capital costs in terms of design parameters. And so, with this sort of idea, what happens is, whatever actually is in the building on opening day, or whatever seems to be the most immediate need, starts to dwarf the possibility and sort of subsume it, of anything else could ever happen. And so we’re proposing a different kind of flexibility, something that we call „compartmentalized flexibility.“ And the idea is that you, within that continuum, identify a series of points, and you design specifically to them. They can be pushed off-center a little bit, but in the end you actually still get as much of that original spectrum as you originally had hoped. With high modernist flexibility, that doesn’t really work.
02:11Now I’m going to talk about — I’m going to build up the Seattle Central Library in this way before your eyes in about five or six diagrams, and I truly mean this is the design process that you’ll see. With the library staff and the library board, we settled on two core positions. This is the first one, and this is showing, over the last 900 years, the evolution of the book, and other technologies. This diagram was our sort of position piece about the book, and our position was, books are technology — that’s something people forget — but it’s a form of technology that will have to share its dominance with any other form of truly potent technology or media.
02:46The second premise — and this was something that was very difficult for us to convince the librarians of at first — is that libraries, since the inception of Carnegie Library tradition in America, had a second responsibility, and that was for social roles. Ok, now, this I’ll come back to later, but something — actually, the librarians at first said, „No, this isn’t our mandate. Our mandate is media, and particularly the book.“
03:08So what you’re seeing now is actually the design of the building. The upper diagram is what we had seenin a whole host of contemporary libraries that used high modernist flexibility. Sort of, any activity could happen anywhere. We don’t know the future of the library; we don’t know the future of the book; and so, we’ll use this approach.
03:27And what we saw were buildings that were very generic, and worse — not only were they very generic —so, not only does the reading room look like the copy room look like the magazine area — but it meant that whatever issue was troubling the library at that moment was starting to engulf every other activity that was happening in it. And in this case, what was getting engulfed were these social responsibilities by the expansion of the book. And so we proposed what’s at the lower diagram. Very dumb approach: simply compartmentalize. Put those things whose evolution we could predict — and I don’t mean that we could say what would actually happen in the future, but we have some certainty of the spectrum of what would happen in the future — put those in boxes designed specifically for it, and put the things that we can’t predict on the rooftops. So that was the core idea.
04:10Now, we had to convince the library that social roles were equally important to media, in order to get them to accept this. What you’re seeing here is actually their program on the left. That’s as it was given to us in all of its clarity and glory. Our first operation was to re-digest it back to them, show it to them and say, „You know what? We haven’t touched it, but only one-third of your own program is dedicated to media and books. Two-thirds of it is already dedicated — that’s the white band below, the thing you said isn’t important — is already dedicated to social functions.“ So once we had presented that back to them,they agreed that this sort of core concept could work. We got the right to go back to first principles —that’s the third diagram. We recombined everything. And then we started making new decisions.
04:53What you’re seeing on the right is the design of the library, specifically in terms of square footage. On the left of that diagram, here, you’ll see a series of five platforms — sort of combs, collective programs. And on the right are the more indeterminate spaces; things like reading rooms, whose evolution in 20, 30, 40 years we can’t predict. So that literally was the design of the building. They signed it, and to their chagrin,we came back a week later, and we presented them this. And as you can see, it is literally the diagram on the right.
05:22We just sized — no, really, I mean that, literally. The things on the left-hand side of the diagram, those are the boxes. We sized them into five compartments. They’re super-efficient. We had a very low budget to work with. We pushed them around on the site to make very literal contextual relationships. The reading room should be able to see the water. The main entrance should have a public plaza in front of it to abide by the zoning code, and so forth.
05:45So, you see the five platforms, those are the boxes. within each one, a very discrete thing is happening.The area in between is sort of an urban continuum, these things that we can’t predict their evolution to the same degree. To give you some sense of the power of this idea, the biggest block is what we call the book spiral. It’s literally built in a very inexpensive way — it is a parking garage for books. It just so happens to be on the 6th through 10th floors of the building, but that is not necessarily an expensive approach. And it allows us to organize the entire Dewey Decimal System on one continuous run; no matter how it grows or contracts within the building, it will always have its clarity to end the sort of trail of tears that we’ve all experienced in public libraries.
06:29And so this was the final operation, which was to take these blocks as they were all pushed off kilter, and to hold onto them with a skin. That skin serves double duty, again, for economics. One, it is the lateral stability for the entire building; it’s a structural element. But its dimensions were designed not only for structure, but also for holding on every piece of glass. The glass was then — I’ll use the word impregnated — but it had a layer of metal that was called „stretched metal.“ That metal acts as a microlouver, so from the exterior of the building, the sun sees it as totally opaque, but from the interior, it’s entirely transparent.
07:02So now I’m going to take you on a tour of the building. Let me see if I can find it. For anyone who gets motion sickness, I apologize. So, this is the building. And I think what’s important is, when we first unveiled the building, the public saw it as being totally about our whim and ego. And it was defended, believe it or not, by the librarians. They said, „Look, we don’t know what it is, but we know it’s everything that we need it to be, based on the observations that we’ve done about the program.“ This is going into one of the entries. So, it’s an unusual building for a public library, obviously.
07:45So now we’re going into what we call the living room. This is actually a program that we invented with the library. It was recognizing that public libraries are the last vestige of public free space. There are plenty of shopping malls that allow you to get out of the rain in downtown Seattle, but there are not so many free places that allow you to get out of the rain. So this was an unprogrammed area where people could pretty much do anything, including eat, yell, play chess and so forth.
08:11Now we’re moving up into what we call the mixing chamber. That was the main technology area in the building. You’ll have to tell me if I’m going too fast for you. And now up. This is actually the place that we put into the building so I could propose to my wife, right there.
08:39She said yes.
08:43I’m running out of time, so I’m actually going to stop. I can show this to you later. But let’s see if I can very quickly get into the book spiral, because I think it’s, as I said, the most — this is the main reading room — the most unique part of the building. You dizzy yet? Ok, so here, this is the book spiral. So, it’s very indiscernible, but it’s actually a continuous stair-stepping. It allows you to, on one city block, go up one full floor, so that it’s on a continuum.
09:22Ok, now I’m going to go back, and I’m going to hit a second project. I’m going to go very, very quickly through this. Now this is the Dallas Theater. It was an unusual client for us, because they came to us and they said, „We need you to do a new building. We’ve been working in a temporary space for 30 years, but because of that temporary space, we’ve become an infamous theater company. Theater is really focused in New York, Chicago and Seattle, with the exception of the Dallas Theater Company.“ And the very fact that they worked in a provisional space meant that for Beckett, they could blow out a wall; they could do „Cherry Orchard“ and blow a hole through the floor, and so forth.
09:58So it was a very daunting task for us to do a brand-new building that could be a pristine building, but keep this kind of experimental nature. And the second is, they were what we call a multi-form theater,they do different kinds of performances in repertory. So they in the morning will do something in arena,then they’ll do something in proscenium and so forth. And so they needed to be able to quickly transformbetween different theater organizations, and for operational budget reasons, this actually no longer happens in pretty much any multi-form theater in the United States, so we needed to figure out a way to overcome that.
10:30So our thought was to literally put the theater on its head: to take those things that were previously defined as front-of-house and back-of-house and stack them above house and below house, and to create what we called a theater machine. We invest the money in the operation of the building. It’s almost as though the building could be placed anywhere, wherever you place it, the area under it is charged for theatrical performances. And it allowed us to go back to first principles, and redefine fly tower, acoustic enclosure, light enclosure and so forth. And at the push of a button, it allows the artistic director to move between proscenium, thrust, and in fact, arena and traverse and flat floor, in a very quick transfiguration.
11:08So in fact, using operational budget, we can — sorry, capital cost — we can actually achieve what was no longer achievable in operational cost. And that means that the artistic director now has a palette that he or she can choose from, between a series of forms and a series of processions, because that enclosure around the theater that is normally trapped with front-of-house and back-of-house spaces has been liberated. So an artistic director has the ability to have a performance that enters in a Wagnerian procession, shows the first act in thrust, the intermission in a Greek procession, second act in arena, and so forth.
11:44So I’m going to show you what this actually means. This is the theater up close. Any portion around the theater actually can be opened discretely. The light enclosure can be lifted separate to the acoustic enclosure, so you can do Beckett with Dallas as the backdrop. Portions can be opened, so you can now actually have motorcycles drive directly into the performance, or you can even just have an open-air performance, or for intermissions. The balconies all move to go between those configurations, but they also disappear. The proscenium line can also disappear. You can bring enormous objects in, so in fact, the Dallas Theater Company — their first show will be a play about Charles Lindbergh, and they’ll want to bring in a real aircraft. And then it also provides them, in the off-season, the ability to actually rent out their space for entirely different things. This is it from a distance. Open up entire portions for different kinds of events. And at night. Again, remove the light enclosure; keep the acoustic enclosure. This is a monster truck show.
12:52I’m going to show now the last project. This also is an unusual client. They inverted the whole idea of development. They came to us and they said — unlike normal developers — they said, „We want to start out by providing a contemporary art museum in Louisville. That’s our main goal.“ And so instead of being a developer that sees an opportunity to make money, they saw an ability to be a catalyst in their downtown. And the fact that they wanted to support the contemporary art museum actually built their pro forma, so they worked in reverse. And that pro forma led us to a mixed-use building that was very large,in order to support their aspirations of the art, but it also opened up opportunities for the art itself to collaborate, interact with commercial spaces that actually artists more and more want to work within. And it also charged us with thinking about how to have something that was both a single building and a credible sort of sub-building.
13:43So this is Louisville’s skyline, and I’m going to take you through the various constraints that led to the project. First: the physical constraints. We actually had to operate on three discrete sites, all of them well smaller than the size of the building. We had to operate next to the new Muhammad Ali Center, and respect it. We had to operate within the 100-year floodplain. Now, this area floods three to four times a year, and there’s a levee behind our site, similar to the ones that broke in New Orleans. Had to operate behind the I-64 corridor, a street that cuts through the middle of these separate sites. So we’re starting to build a sort of nightmare of constraints in a bathtub. Underneath the bathtub are the city’s main power lines. And there is a pedestrian corridor that they wanted to add, that would link a series of cultural buildings, and a view corridor — because this is the historic district — that they didn’t want to obstruct with a new building.
14:38And now we’re going to add 1.1 million square feet. And if we did the traditional thing, that 1.1 million square feet — these are the different programs — the traditional thing would be to identify the public elements, place them on sites, and now we’d have a really terrible situation: a public thing in the middle of a bathtub that floods. And then we would size all the other elements — the different commercial elements: hotel, luxury housing, offices and so forth — and dump it on top. And we would create something that was unviable. In fact — and you know this — this is called the Time Warner Building.
15:12So our strategy was very simple. Just lift the entire block, flip some of the elements over, reposition them so they have appropriate views and relationships to downtown, and make circulation connections and reroute the road. So that’s the basic concept, and now I’m going to show you what it leads to.
15:31Ok, it seems a very formal, willful gesture, but something derived entirely out of the constraints. And again, when we unveiled it, there was a sort of nervousness that this was about an architect making a statement, not an architect who was attempting to solve a series of problems. Now, within that center zone, as I said, we have the ability to mix a series of things. So here, this is sort of an x-ray — the towers are totally developer-driven. They told us the dimensions, the sizes and so forth, and we focused on taking all the public components — the lobbies, the bars — everything that different commercial elements would have, and combined it in the center, in the sort of subway map, in the transfer zone that would also include the contemporary art museum.
16:11So it creates a situation like this, where you have artists who can operate within an art space that also has an amazing view on the 22nd floor, but it also has proximity that the curator can either open or close.It allows people on exercise bicycles to be seen, or to see the art, and so forth. It also means that if an artist wants to invade something like a swimming pool, they can begin to do their exhibition in a swimming pool, so they’re not forced to always work within the confines of a contemporary gallery space.
16:38So, how to build this. It’s very simple: it’s a chair. So, we begin by building the cores. As we’re building the cores, we build the contemporary art museum at grade. That allows us to have incredible efficiency and cost efficiency. This is not a high-budget building. The moment the cores get to mid level, we finish the art museum; we put all the mechanical equipment in it; and then we jack it up into the air. This is how they build really large aircraft hangars, for instance, the ones that they did for the A380. Finish the cores, finish the meat and you get something that looks like this.
17:09Now I only have about 30 seconds, so I want to start an animation, and we’ll conclude with that.
我将快速地展示三件作品 我时间不多 并且我想通过快速的展示来强化这三件作品的概念 第一件作品我将它的设计称之为高度理性主义 它几乎 已经理性到了荒唐的境界 它已经超过了 人们通常可以接受的 理性的程度 它包含了一些你看得见 但却想不到是理性主义的 一些元素
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00:41第二件 这第二件作品 并没有署名 我们不知作者是谁，而通常建筑师很乐于署名 通常以团队形式 事实上我们在这件作品中看不到 传统建筑大师的创造 而只是他的助手画出的草图
01:02第三个，有点难度 以它的长度，很难把所有这些 连接在一起 但它挑战了最现代意义上的灵活性 现代主义认为，我们创造 一种共有的单一空间 几乎所有的事都能在那里发生 我把它称为射击的灵活性 把你的头转向这边，射击，你一定会打中目标 这就是现代主义的预示 在单一空间里，所有的事都可能发生 但正如我们看见的 对于设计而言 运转费用超过了资本成本 一旦有了这种想法 所有正在建造中的 或者所有看似最急迫的需求 都会阻止想法的落实 以及最后设计成果的诞生 所以我们提出一种不一样的灵活性 我们称之为 “分类的灵活性” 大致的概念就像 你连续地确认一系列点，并对它们进行设计 它们会有点偏离中心 但最后你还是会得到 和你最初想要的类似的效果 而现代主义的灵活性，这点却不能成立
02:11现在我来谈一下，我打算建造西雅图中央图书馆 你们可以看到五六个图表 这就是你们将看到的设计过程 我们同图书馆委员会及工作人员一起 确定了两个核心设置 这是第一个，它显示了，在过去900年里， 书和其他技术的进化过程 这图代表了我们对书的定位 书本就是技术 许多人忘了这点 但是我们需要借助其他技术或媒介 才能分享书的影响力
02:46第二个预设，这个很难， 我们花了很大力气去说服图书管理员 它们自从 美国卡耐基图书馆的传统开始 就承担了一种第二性的社会责任 好了，现在，我们稍候再说这个，但是 那些图书管理员一开始会说：“不，这不是我们要管的” 我们管的是媒介，尤其是书
03:08所以你现在看到的其实是建筑的设计 上面的图表 是我们在整个当代图书馆里看到的 它们运用到了现代主义的灵活性 就是那种，任何事在任何地方都可能发生的 我们不知道图书馆的未来，也不知道书的未来 所以我们用这个方法
03:26我们看到的建筑千人一面 更糟的是并不只是看上去非常相似 不只是阅览室和文印室 或者和杂志区长得差不多 更重要的是它意味着 所有图书馆里发生的事 都会相互干扰相互影响 在这种情况下 书的社会责任之延伸将得不到发挥 所以我们提出了下面的这个图 很土的办法 简化分类，将这些我们可以预料的事 我并不是说我们可以预测未来发生什么 但是我们很确信有这种 未来发生的可能性 把这些东西放在一个专门设计的盒子里而把那些无法预测的放在屋顶 这就是核心思想
04:10现在，为了让图书管理员认识到这一点 我们必须说服他们 社会责任和媒介的作用一样重要 你现在看到的左边的是他们的程序 和我们拿到它时一样的色彩鲜艳 我们的第一步是重新组合它们 回去跟他们说 “你们知道吗，我们一点都没动过 但你们的程序只有1/3是和媒介及书有关的 而剩下的三分之二，就是下面的白色部分你们说它不重要的 已经起到了社会功能 所以，一旦我们把这个重新给他们看 他们同意这种核心概念能有效我们可以回到最重要的 第三个图表，我们把一切重新组合 然后我们开始做新的决定
04:53你们看到的右边是对图书馆的设计 尤其是面积空间上 左边，这里 你会看见 一系列的五个平台 梳理整合好的程序 而右边不确定的空间 比如阅览室 我们无法判断它未来20，30，40年的发展 所以这就是初步的设计他们签字同意了，但让他们懊恼的是 一个星期以后，我们回来，向他们展示了这个
05:19你可以看到，这和那个图表面上看很契合 我们只是 噢，我说真的，表面上看 左边这些 就像图上的，是盒子我们把他们放进了五个部分 超级高效，我们预算很低 我们就这样建造 非常清楚的上下关系 从阅览室里可以看到下面的水 主入口前有一个广场 遵守区域编号，排列
05:45你可以看到五个平台 五个盒子，每个专供一项特殊的用途 而中间是现代化的联结 这些我们无法预料未来发展进度的 为了向你们展现这种想法的强大力量 最大的这一块我们称之为书螺旋 很简单，造价也不贵 它就像一个”停书场“ 从6楼到10楼 但并不贵 它使得我们可以连续地使用杜威十进制图书排列法 无论书的数量怎样扩张 还是可以整理得很清楚 我们以前都曾对公共图书馆很无语 经常找不到书 (笑声)
06:29而最后一步就是把这些楼层 整合在一起 设计一个漂亮的外观 这个外观必须有两层作用 第一，维持整个建筑横向的稳定 这是结构层面的，但它的作用不仅在于此 它还必须保证所有玻璃的安装 使得玻璃融合一体 但它有所谓的一层受力金属 就像微型天窗 隔离外部的阳光 却能保持室内光线通透
07:02现在，我将带你们领略一下这个建筑 我来找找看 抱歉 这就是那幢建筑 我认为重要的是，当我们首次展示这个建筑 公众普遍认为 这只是我们一时的野心和兴致 但信不信由你们，这个建筑得到了图书管理员们的拥护他们说：”我们不知这是啥， 但根据我们观察 它有了我们需要的一切“ 这是个入口 这是个很特别的公共图书馆 很显然
07:45我们去看一下阅览室，错了，是大厅 这其实是我们发明的一个空间 将图书馆作为 一个公众的自由空间 在西雅图市中心 有许多购物广场，你避雨的时候可以去 但却没有多少 自由空间让你避雨 而这就是一个人们可以做很多事的空间 包括吃，叫喊，下棋等等
08:11现在我们往上 这是一个混合区 也是整座建筑的主体 如果我走得太快，你们可以提出 现在上来 这个其实是我们特地设计的 好让我向我妻子求婚，就是这里 (笑声) 她答应了
08:44我快没时间了，所以就此打住 我可以晚些再向你们展示 但我们试试看能不能快点看一下书螺旋 因为我觉得它是最…… 这是主阅览室，书螺旋是整座建筑最独特的地方 你们晕了吗？ 好，这就是书螺旋 看不清 但实际上它是不断在上升 让你在一层楼 不断连续地向上
09:22好，现在我们谈谈第二个作品 我会很快 这是达拉斯剧院，我们一个很特别的客户 因为他们来找我们，说 我们需要你们建一栋新楼 我们已经在临时房里工作了30年 就是因为那临时房 我们的剧院公司臭名昭著 我们的剧院主要针对纽约，芝加哥，西雅图 这是我们达拉斯剧院公司的一些期望” 而他们在临时性场地工作的事实 说明他们可以随便弄垮一面墙 或者像樱桃园一样在地上挖洞，等等
09:57所以要为他们造一幢新楼对我们是一项令人畏惧的工作 要保持完好无损的外表 又要允许他们在里面做各种试验性的事 第二点是，这家公司是我们常说的 多功能剧院 他们安排各种剧目的表演 比如早上， 他们会安排竞技场表演 然后还有些幕前表演等等 所以他们需要很快地 在各种剧目间转换 而由于预算 现在一般的美国剧院公司 都不做这种形式 因此我们要想法克服这一点
10:30所以我们的想法是把剧院放在前面 然后把前面说的这些分为前部和后部 以及上部和下部 把它建成一个剧院机器 我们投钱进去 所有的钱都会通过剧院的演出 得到回报 这让我们回到最初 重新设计舞台塔，音箱 灯光等 同时，只要一按键 艺术导演就可以在舞台，竞技场 之间穿梭 这是一种很快的转换
11:08所以事实上，用那些运营成本 抱歉，是资本成本，我们可以达到 难以置信的效果 这意味着艺术导演 现在可以选择 不同表演方式 由于剧院设计的关系 原本孤立的前后部得以贯通 空间得到了有效的利用 艺术导演可以 表演一出瓦格纳的戏 然后把它改变成 希腊的过渡场景 再到竞技场表演第二幕，等等
11:44我现在要展示给你们看，这到底意味着什么 这就是剧院 其实周围的每一部分都可以秘密打开 照明可以分开这些都拿掉你可以演贝克纳 把达拉斯作为背景 周围打开，你可以让摩托车进去 直接上舞台，甚至可以由开放式的表演 或者是便于转场 这些结构中的所有包厢都可以移动 或者拿掉 幕前部分也可以拿掉 你可以搬来巨大的东西，事实上 达拉斯剧院的第一场秀 是关于查尔斯·林德伯格的 他们将搬来真的飞行器 这也让他们在非演出季的时候 可以把场地租出去 这是夜晚，抱歉，远处看 把所用部分都打开，准备不同的活动 这是在晚上 一样的，去掉灯光，保留声音 可以演鬼片
12:52现在我将要展示最后一件作品 也是一个特别的客户 他们颠覆了整个发展的思路 和一般的开发商不同，他们过来跟我们说 “我们想从 当代艺术馆开始” 在路易斯维尔，这就是我们主要的目标“ 和一般开发商看到赚钱的机会不同 他们希望在市中心 制造一些刺激因素 他们建立起一种预期 来支持当代艺术 并且为此奋斗 而那种预期 引导我们建造一幢很大的多功能建筑 可以支持他们的艺术灵感 同时为艺术本身提供机会 与商业空间整合，互动 这才是现代艺术家期望的工作环境 这也迫使我们去思考 如何把两种功能 融合在一幢建筑里
13:43现在我将，这是路易斯维尔的地平线 我将带你们穿过 各种各样的限制去看到这个项目 首先，空间上的限制事实上我们要在三个分散的点之间建造 而它们在体积上都比这建筑小 首先，是新的爱立中心 我们必须在风格上与它协调 必须建造在100年漫滩的范围内 现在这块地方，每三到四年犯一次洪水 我们选址的后面还有一码头 和新奥尔良损坏的那个很相似 我们必须在I-64长廊后施工 这条街把地分割成几部分 所有的这些……简直是灾难 这块地下面 有城市的主要电线 他们想在那里建一条徒步走廊 可以将周围的建筑连成一体 同时这也是一条景观走道 由于这是历史区，他们不希望被新房子挡住 (笑声)
14:37现在我们将扩建1100万平方英尺 如果我们按常规做法 当然这个项目会有不同 传统的做法就是识别一些公共元素，保持不动 这样就会有一个很糟的结果 会出现整体和谐中的突兀 然后我们会安排其他的一些元素 一些商业元素 酒店，奢侈住房，办公楼等 这些建筑会在上层 我们的这些建筑无法独立存在 事实上，就像时代华纳大楼 (笑声)
15:12我们的战略非常简单 把整个街区向上提升 把一些建筑重新组合 使它们看起来更协调，关系更紧密 改变建筑间的关系以及道路的排列 好了，这是基本的概念 现在我想你们展示它的效果
15:32好的，它看上去是一个有力的象征 完全超出一般的限制 一样的是，当它被揭幕时，也面临了种种质疑 这就像建筑师作了一个声明 却不去解决问题 有一系列的问题 现在，正如我说的，我们有能力 在那片中心区域组合一系列的事 所以你们可以看到这些 这些，这塔就像x射线 这些都是由发展商决定的，他们告诉我们面积的标准 而我们主要关注公共元素 大厅，酒吧， 所有关于商业的 并把他们在中心整合，就像四通八达的地铁图 在过渡区域由当代博物馆
16:11所以大致就是这个样子 我们有艺术家在里面工作 22楼的艺术空间有惊人的视野 但是馆长可以选择 是否开放这一区域 人们可以在那里骑自行车锻炼 观赏艺术，或成为艺术的一部分等 如果有的艺术家很想尝试游泳池这样的空间 在这里他们可以在游泳池内进行展览 这与一般的当代艺术相比 使他们不用再恪守固定的局限
16:38所以，怎么造这个 很简单，这是一张椅子 我们先开始建造主体部分 同时也建造当代艺术博物馆 这会使得我们非常高效，也很省钱 这幢建筑预算并不高 当主体物分建到中层时 艺术博物馆封顶，开始安装机械设备 然后在这里建个平面 他们也是这样造大型飞机库的 比如他们为空客A380早的 主体框架搭建完成后开始填充血肉 然后你们可以看到就像这个
17:09现在我大概只有30秒，我马上开始 一个动画片，我们将以此结束 掌声
17:20Chris希望我加几句 剧院正在建造 而这个工程将在大约一年后开工 2010年完工